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session, and sale of marijuana? These questions are neither
rhetorical nor scornful. By asking them, I am calling for a sincere, hard look at the laws
and their basic underlying assumptions. If we have been deluded about how they work,
perhaps it is time for a reassessment of their status.
As I see it, the laws against marijuana have at least the following five functions (which
bear with them correlative assumptions about criteria of effectiveness): (1) deterrence, (2)
rehabilitation, (3) public safety, (4) vengeance, and (5) symbolic representation.
The first three of these functions are what might be called "instrumental" goals, and the
last two are "expressive." Deterrence, public safety, and rehabilitation are goals whose
attainment can, within the very severe limitations of bias and differential
perception—which influence everyone at all times—at least ideally be determined. Of
course, the public image of a given reality may be wildly different from the image that a
panel of disinterested experts would have (were it possible to find them). Who determines
whether and to what extent goals have been attained? Thus, the criteria for effectiveness,
and the determination of whether the goals have been reached, although ideally
perceptible, in practice become somewhat muddied. But we should be able to see, in
theory, at least, that the first three of these goals are tangible. The last two are not tangible.
We can establish whether punishment rehabilitates the user, but it is impossible to
determine the effectiveness of the vengeance or the symbolism criterion. It is not that the
task would be too imposing; it is that they are ends in themselves, given in the nature of
things—for some observers—and they must be either accepted or rejected outright. Their
rightness or wrongness depends entirely on intangibles, on emotion, sentiment,
At first glance, a consideration of the first goal, deterrence, might seem a vain issue,
after even the most cursory glance at the enormity of the arrest statistics. To the 50,000
California marijuana arrests in 1968, we have those of every state—none so great in
number, singly, as California, but altogether at least doubling and possibly tripling the
figure for the whole country.
What of 1969 and 1970? Deterrence? Who, indeed, is being deterred? But consider the
question of whether the use of marijuana would not actually be even higher were the drug
legalized. The assumption about use being stimulated by the thrill of breaking the
law—the "forbidden fruit" hypothesis—has no validity. Most users are not attracted by the
risk of incarceration, on the contrary, most use marijuana in spite of the risks. Some
psychiatrists feel that lawbreakers feel guilty about imagined past transgressions and seek
a means to be punished. Such psychiatric judgments can often be used as an instrument to
attack any and all protests of the existing legal structure. By giving scientific legitima
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Beatrix Choice was one of the original offerings from the Super Sativa Seed Club, listed as M27 in their
1987-88 catalog, as well as their 89-90 catalog. Here is how it was described: "M27 A U.S. hybrid top strain.
Plants were selected for the quality of the high. Extremely strong. The father was of an inbred Acapulco Gold
strain and the mother was a very potent Indica/Sativa strain (Afghani-south African). A great hybrid. One of our
own favorites. Very suitable for outdoor and indoor growing. You can harvest an enormous amount of
overpowering, trippy buds. Harvest in Holland: middle of September". - Super Sativa Seed Club catalog
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oxicated by liquor, a crime may be committed because moral restraint
is not functioning; under the spell of marihuana, the crime must be
committed because it is the right thing to do, and it would be wrong not to
A remarkable difference between opium derivatives and marijuana lies in
the strange fact that while under the influence of marihuana the addict is
frenzied and may do anything; it is only when he is deprived of his drug that
the morphinist or the heroinist becomes frenzied and commits crimes.
Marihuana, while giving the hallucinations of cocaine, adds delusions of
impending physical attack by one's best friend or close relatives. In
addition, marihuana is intrinsically and inherently crime exciting. It has led
to some of the most revolting cases of sadistic rape and murder of modern
This is the issue in its purest form. Although few participants of the debate would
accept this version literally, some do accept its basic premise—that marijuana is
inherently criminogenic. Thus, the question of marijuana's impact on crime needs
Doctors, Policemen, and Sociologists
The position that marijuana causes crime and violence does not have full support today.
In fact, only the police and some segments of the public are solidly behind the contention
(2 of 28)4/15/2004 1:08:08 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 9
that marijuana actually causes crime2 and violence. The official stance of federal,3
state, and most local law enforcement agents is that marijuana, at the very least, plays a
significant role in the commission of crimes of violence. "Marihuana is not only an
extremely dangerous drug, it is a menace to public health, safety and welfare" said the ex-
Commissioner of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Henry L. Giordano.4
"Every user is a potential danger to the general public," Director of the New York State
Bureau of Narcotic Control, and Executive Secretary of the International Narcotic
Enforcement Officer's Association, John J. Bellizzi, is quoted as saying,5 referring to a
federally sponsored study to be discussed shortly. The Los Angeles Police Department, in
conjunction with the Narcotic Education Foundation of America, has written, assembled,
printed, and distributed a pamphlet entitled "Facts about Marijuana," which asserts the
criminogenic power of cannabis.
There seems little doubt that probably a majority of all law enforcement officers believe
that marijuana is instrumental in the precipitation of criminal behavior. There are, of
course, exceptions. Thorvald T. Brown, for instance, in a textbook on drugs for policemen
... there is no more criminality in a tin of marijuana than there is in a fifth of
whiskey, gin or vodka.
Bizarre criminal cases attributable to marihuana and other drugs, while
common in newspaper stories, are rather rare in official police files. Crimes
of violence such as murder, rape, mayhem, shootings, stabbings,
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S7 have now reported an
elegant general synthesis of side-chain derivatives of b,1-THC as shown in Chart
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s seedbank catalog
Type high/strength: strong, fairly clear Height: 2-3m Yield: very high Harvest date (Netherlands natural
photoperiod): end Nov 12hr day exposure harvest (# of weeks): 9-14 Indoor / greenhouse / outdoor Seems
more mold resistant than other varieties.” – Positronics seedbank catalog
"Swazi: For outdoor growers we now have the famous Swazi, know for early flowering, disease resistance, very
sweet sativa taste and high. A truly unique variety from Swaziland South Africa.
Outdoor height: 7-9 ft. Outdoor yield average: 1 lb. Finish date: Sept. 15 at 40 degrees latitude." – High
Quality Seeds catalog
“I looked in both of my SSSC catalogs (1987-88, 1989-90) and they did not offer a SWAZI strain. The only
South African strain that they listed was a PineTown Durban Poison (M3). As for item # M5. It doesn’t exist in
my catalogs. Their listings are M1 Napali, M2 Manilla Fillipino, M3 Durban, and M6 Indica-creeper hybrid. I then
checked out my Original Seed Bank catalogs from the same time period. Nevil offered a Swazi strain (pure) for
the first time in Nov. of 1987. It is listed again in his 1988 catalog. By 1989, Swazi (pure) is no longer being
offered. (One Swazi hybrid that was introduced in 1988, is still listed in his 89 catalog, HashPlant/NL#1 X
SWAZI).” – Prince Caspian
"I personally think the plants these Cinderella 99 seeds produce are every bit as good as a cutting from Princess
herself (or better). I say better because the flavor of no two plants is ""identical""; there's a personality to all
living things. Like Princess herself, Cinderella is sweet & fruity to the palette and nose, and when you take a hit
you're BLASTED...with the same ""racy"" high as Princess! The improvement comes in the yield department; 25%
greater yield and a stronger branch structure, which I accomplished by starting with some ShivaSkunk genes in
the original father in the cubing process. I knew I'd blend out the majority of the traits from ShivaSkunk in the
cubing process, but I was hoping to incorporate the ShivaSkunk's stronger branches because Princess had a
tendency to need supports in the final two weeks of flowering. As it turns out, I got lucky and it worked. The
name suits the strain IMO - it’s a true Cinderella Story.” - MrSoul"
"“Jack Herer is an unstable strain bred from an unequal combination of Sk#1, NL#5, and Haze. Crossing a male
and female Jack Herer creates an F2 generation which has a HUGE number of possible recombinations of the
genes. I grew out some Jack Herer F2s and discovered a SPECIAL one, ""Princess"", which has many
mprovements on the original JH such as a shorter flowering time, denser bud structure and pineapple
scent/flavour. I have been continually back crossing Princess with her male offspring (generation after
generation) which eventually creates a stabilized strain having her special characteristics found reliably in most
females grown from those seeds. Each generation is composed of a 5 It Google Com , he becomes destructive. Man's inner
being is savage, primitive, and inherently antisocial. This model of man, given its greatest
impetus by Freud, had influenced popular criminology for almost a century. It is
completely inadequate to explain anything, and blatantly false as a description of man and
what makes him tick.
I will conclude this topic by asking a set of questions that any theory of lawbreaking
must answer, which cast doubt on the theory of the lowering of inhibitions as a cause of
crime (and as a reason why marijuana, specifically, is inherently criminogenic). No one
has adequately explained why or how it is that a "loss of control" or a "release of
inhibitions" will necessarily—or ever—result in violent crimes, or crimes of any sort.
Why violence? Why crime? Why, if man becomes less inhibited, does he do harm to his
fellow man? Is the internal life of man intrinsically antisocial? Do we really have such a
gloomy image of who man "really" is, what he "really" wants to do? Are man's most
fundamental and well-hidden desires really of such a destructive nature? How are these
desires generated? Are they intrinsic in the nature of man? Or are they socially generated?
(14 of 28)4/15/2004 1:08:08 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 9
Or do they exist at all? Why isn't man's internal life more creative, more directed toward
the good of society (however that might be interpreted)? What, specifically, is the
mechanism that translates a "loss of control" into acts of violence and crime? Could it be
that man fears doing charitable acts toward his fellow man because he will be thought a
dupe and a fool? Perhaps any "liberating" mechanism will bring out these philanthropic
tendencies. Are charitable acts rewarded in our society? Perhaps "inhibitions" serve to
restrain man from being generous and socially constructive. Are acts of creativity and
imagination rewarded by us? Perhaps a release of inhibitions really serves to bring out
man's inner being—which is more creative, not more violent, than is apparent in public.
(The Timothy Leary camp, too, asserts that the psychedelic drugs release inhibitions, but
their image of man's essential being is different from the antipot lobby's.)
The "fact" that marijuana releases inhibitions and, therefore, is criminogenic, is a
common accusation. But it is built on a theory and an image of man that is essentially
outdated today. There is no evidence to support the contention that man, disinhibited, is
any more dangerous than man with his protective cultural shield around him. He who
makes the accusation assumes automatically that inhibitions are a wholesome and
protective device that no society can do without. Man, after all, the theory goes, is
essentially evil. Therefore inhibitions are good, because they restrain man's essential
nature. This is an assumption that many informed students of man are not willing to make.
Before we can take seriously the accusation that mariju